Essential vitamins & Its Function

  • Vitamin A: Vitamin A also known as retinol. It consists of carotene compounds which are responsible for transmitting light sensation in the retina of the eye.
  • Biotin: It is very essential for the proteins and carbohydrates metabolism and in the production of hormones.
  • Vitamin B1: Vitamin B1 also known as Thiamin, acts as a coenzyme in body metabolism. This deficiency can lead to beriberi, a disease related to the heart and nervous system. Getting plenty of carbohydrates is very important during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
  • Vitamin B2: Riboflavin is essential for the reactions of coenzymes. It helps in body growth and the production of red blood cells. This deficiency causes inflammation of the lining of the mouth and skin.
  • Vitamin B3Niacin, an essential part of coenzymes of body metabolism. Deficiency causes inflammation of the skin, rectum and mouth. It is responsible for healthy skin and nerves.
  • Vitamin B6: It is also called pyridoxine, a cofactor for enzymes. Deficiency leads to inflammation of the skin and mouth, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. It helps form red blood cells and maintains brain function.
  • Folate (folic acid): Folic acid is an important factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material). Folate deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia. Pregnant woman should get enough folate.
  • Vitamin B12: This is an essential factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material of all cells). Deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia. It also helps form red blood cells and the central nervous system.
  • Vitamin C: Vitamin C also called as ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue and also promotes wound healing. Deficiency can leads to scurvy.
  • Vitamin D: Vitamin D is a steroid vitamin which helps in promoting absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Sunlight promotes adequate vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Deficiency can lead to bone deformity (rickets) in children.
  • Vitamin E: Vitamin E is an antioxidant also known as tocopherol. Deficiency can lead to anemia. It plays a major role in the formation of red blood cells and helps the body use vitamin K.
  • Vitamin K: It plays major role in the formation of blood clotting factors. Deficiency can lead to abnormal bleeding.
  • Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5): It plays a prominent role in the production of hormones and cholesterol also essential for the metabolism of food.

Reference – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002399.htm